Please click on the images to view them at full size. The gallery contains images related to my various books, articles, exhibitions, and documentaries.
General Philip Sheridan is standing on the far left with George Armstrong Custer seated on the far right (US Library of Congress). Sheridan was one of the architects of the campaign against the Lakota and Cheyenne. Around one hundred Irish born soldiers fought with the Seventh Cavalry at the Little Bighorn.
Patrick Cleburne, County Cork born major-general in the Confederate army. He was killed in action during 1864 (US Library of Congress). Cleburne was one of the Confederacy's most talented generals. Before his death he had presented the Confederate Congress with a plan to free southern slaves and arm them to fight against the Union.
A contemporary, albeit romanticised, image of the Battle of Ridgeway, 1866 (US Library of Congress). The battle took place during what was termed the Fenian 'invasion' of Canada. Notice the letters IRA on the flag of the Fenian army, perhaps the first occasion in which the name Irish Republican Army was used. John Boyle O'Reilly took part in a similar attack on Canada in 1870, although he would, soon after, leave the Brotherhood.
The events of John Boyle O'Reilly's escape, in 1869, from the Penal Colony of Western Australia are often confused with the famed Catalpa rescue of 1876. The Catalpa was an American Whaling ship which Clan na Gael employed to rescue six Fenian prisoners from Western Australia. John Devoy masterminded the expedition, although O'Reilly played an important role in its early planning (picture from the US Library of Congress).
Some members of the Irish Brigade of the Union army at Harrison's Landing, Virginia, during the summer of 1862 (US Library of Congress). At the back left stands Father Patrick Dillon CSC. On the right stands James J. McCormick, Quartermaster of the 63rd New York. Seated on the right is Father William Corby CSC and in the middle, Father James Dillon CSC. The seated figure on the left has been tentatively identified as Captain Patrick Clooney, who was killed at Antietam. Thanks to Damian Shiels for providing the names.
Father John Bannon from Roscommon served with the Confederate forces (US Library of Congress). In 1863 the Confederate government sent Bannon back to Ireland to discourage recruitment to the Union army. He also made a couple of unsuccessful diplomatic missions to the Vatican on behalf of the Confederacy.
How the Freeman's Journal portrayed the reaction to the Restoration of Order in Ireland Act, 1920 - the figures in the castle are General Nevil Macready, commander of the British army in Ireland and Hamar Greenwood, the Chief Secretary for Ireland, while across the water stands British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George (Freeman's Journal). The paper proved to be an implacable opponent of British rule in Ireland from late 1919 onwards resulting in a series of violent reprisals by the Crown forces. It would suffer further violence during the civil war when its support of the government resulted in attacks by anti-Treaty forces.
Edwin G. Walker, seen here in the late 1890s, was elected to the Massachusetts State Legislature in 1863 (picture taken from Stanford, Peter Thomas, The Tragedy of the Negro in America, 1897). An attorney, Walker later became a judge. He was a friend of John Boyle O'Reilly and delivered a moving tribute to his colleague at the Tremont Hall memorial service for O'Reilly in 1890.
The New York Draft Riots of 1863. The riots began as a protest against the Lincoln Administration's draft legislation which was biased in favour of wealthy individuals, who could afford to pay for a substitute. However, the protest quickly turned violent and mostly Irish mobs attacked New York's black population. In this scene, rioters burn down an orphanage (US Library of Congress).
The US army attacking striking workers during the Great Railway Strike of 1877 (US Library of Congress). Such scenes of violence were common during the economic disruption of the 1870s. John Boyle O'Reilly, initially an opponent of strikes and trade unions, used The Pilot newspaper to defend the striking workers.
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